Research Papers

Current topics


Biomed Microdevices 2016

Microfluidic advances in phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing





Analytical Chemistry 2016

Rapid Detection of Bacteria from Blood with Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Journals/Research Papers

Fraunhofer CMI aims to be actively involved in the scientific dialog within the engineering and science community. Our engineers and scientists regularly publish fundamental and application-specific technical papers in consultation with our customers and research collaborators. The foundations for many new developments in the field of biomedical engineering and custom automation systems have been laid at Fraunhofer CMI and have been documented in relevant technical papers.


Kalashnikov, M.; Lee, J.C.; Sauer-Budge, A.F. Optimization of Stress-Based Microfluidic Testing for Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Strains. Diagnostics 20188, 24.


Kalashnikov M, Mueller M, McBeth C, Lee JC, Campbell J, Sharon A, et al. Rapid phenotypic stress-based microfluidic antibiotic susceptibility testing of Gram-negative clinical isolates. Scientific Reports. 2017 Aug 14;7(1):8031.

McBeth C, Lauer J, Ottersbach M, Campbell J, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge AF. 3D bioprinting of GelMA scaffolds triggers mineral deposition by primary human osteoblasts. Biofabrication. 2017;9(1):015009. doi: 10.1088/1758-5090/aa53bd. PubMed PMID: 28071596.

Teng F, Cormier T, Sauer-Budge A, Chaudhury R, Pera V, Istfan R, Chargin D, Brookfield S, Ko NY, Roblyer D. Wearable near-infrared optical probe for continuous monitoring during breast cancer neoadjuvant chemotherapy infusions. Journal of Biomedical Optics. 2017;22(1):014001. doi: doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.22.1.014001.


Campbell J, McBeth C, Kalashnikov M, Boardman AK, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge AF. Microfluidic advances in phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing. Biomed Microdevices. 2016;18(6):103. doi: 10.1007/s10544-016-0121-8. PubMed PMID: 27796676.

Boardman AK, Wong WS, Premasiri WR, Ziegler LD, Lee JC, Miljkovic M, Klapperich CM, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge AF. Rapid Detection of Bacteria from Blood with Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. Analytical chemistry. 2016;88(16):8026-35. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b01273. PubMed PMID: 27429301; PMCID: PMC4988670.

Premasiri WR, Lee JC, Sauer-Budge A, Theberge R, Costello C, Ziegler L. The biochemical origins of the surface-enhanced Raman spectra of bacteria: a metabolomics profiling by SERS. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2016;408(17):4631-47. doi: 10.1007/s00216-016-9540-x. PubMed PMID: 27100230.

Fernández-Carballo, L. B.; McGuiness, I.; McBeth, C.; Kalashnikov, M.; Borrós, S.; Sharon, A.; Sauer-Budge, A.F. "Low-cost, real-time, continuous flow PCR system for pathogen detection", Biomed Microdevices (2016) 18:34; DOI 10.1007/s10544-016-0060-4. 

Keenan, M. ; Howard, C. ; Tate, T. ; McGuiness, I. ; Sauer-Budge, A. ; Black, J. ; Utzinger, U. and Barton, J.K. "Design of an everting balloon to deploy a microendoscope to the fallopian tubes", Proc. SPIE 9689, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics XII, 968944 (March 8, 2016); doi:10.1117/12.2213345

Teng F ; Cormier T; Sauer-Budge A  and Roblyer AM."A wearable optical device for continuous monitoring during neoadjuvant chemotherapy infusions", Proc. SPIE 9715, Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XVI: Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics, 97150P (March 4, 2016); doi:10.1117/12.2208438


Campbell J, Pollock NR, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge AF. Development of an automated on-chip bead-based ELISA platform. Anal. Methods 2015; 7:8472–7. DOI: 10.1039/C5AY00264H.

Campbell J, McGuinness I, Wirz H, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge AF. Multi-material and Multi-scale Three-dimensional Bioprinter. J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med. 2015; 6 (2):021005. DOI: 10.1115/1.4031230.

Boardman AK, Campbell J, Wirz H, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge AF. Rapid Microbial Sample Preparation from Blood Using a Novel Concentration Device. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(2):e0116837. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0116837. PubMed PMID: 25675242; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4326418.

Rosen JE, Size A, Yang Y, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge A. Artificial hand for minimally invasive surgery: design and testing of initial prototype. Surg Endosc. 2015;29:61-7. PubMed PMID: 24972926.


Briggs J, A'amar O, Bigio IJ, Rosen J, Lee ST, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge AF. Integrated Device for in vivo Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy and Elastic Scattering Spectroscopy in Pre-Operative Thyroid Nodules. Journal of Medical Devices. 2014;8(June):021003.

Kalashnikov M, Campbell J, Lee JC, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge AF. Stress-induced Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing on a Chip. J Vis Exp. 2014(83). PubMed PMID: 24430495.


Byrnes S, Fan A, Trueb J, Jareczek F, Mazzochette M, Sharon A, Sauer-Budge AF, Klapperich CM. A Portable, Pressure Driven, Room Temperature Nucleic Acid Extraction and Storage System for Point of Care Molecular Diagnostics. Analytical methods : advancing methods and applications. 2013;5(13):3177-84. PubMed PMID: 23914255; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3727300.

Boardman, A.K., S. Allison, A. Sharon, and A.F. Sauer-Budge. Comparison of anti-fouling surface coatings for applications in bacteremia diagnostics. Analytical Methods. 2013;5(1):273-80.

Sauer-Budge, A.F., A.K. Boardman, S. Allison, H. Wirz, D. Foss, and A. Sharon. Materials and surface properties optimization to prevent biofouling of a novel bacterial concentrator. Procedia CIRP. 2013;5:185-8.


Mirsky, P., A. Chatterjee, A.F. Sauer-Budge, and A. Sharon. An automated, parallel processing approach to biomolecular sample preparation. Journal of Laboratory Automation, 2012. 17(2): 116-124. PubMed PMID: 22357555.

Kalashnikov, M., J.C. Lee, J. Campbell, A. Sharon, and A.F. Sauer-Budge. A microfluidic platform for rapid, stress-induced antibiotic susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus aureus. Lab Chip, 2012. 12(21): 4523-32. PubMed PMID: 22968495.

Wirz, H., A.F. Sauer-Budge, J. Briggs, A. Sharpe, S. Sudong, and A. Sharon. Automated production of plant-based vaccines and pharmaceuticals. Journal of Laboratory Automation, 2012. 17(6): 449-57. PubMed PMID: 23015521.

Premasiri, W.R., A.F. Sauer-Budge, J.C. Lee, C.M. Klapperich, and L.D. Ziegler. Rapid bacterial diagnostics via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Spectroscopy Solutions for Materials Analysis, 2012. June: 8-21.

Campbell, J., P. Mirsky, A. Chatterjee, A. Sharon, and A.F. Sauer-Budge. A semi-automated liquid handler for parallel sample preparation. Biotech International, 2012.May / June: 23-5.

Goldstein, L.E., A.M. Fisher, C.A. Tagge, X.L. Zhang, L. Velisek, J.A. Sullivan, C. Upreti, J.M. Kracht, M. Ericsson, M.W. Wojnarowicz, C.J. Goletiani, G.M. Maglakelidze, N. Casey, J.A. Moncaster, O. Minaeva, R.D. Moir, C.J. Nowinski, R.A. Stern, R.C. Cantu, J. Geiling, J.K. Blusztajn, B.L. Wolozin, T. Ikezu, T.D. Stein, A.E. Budson, N.W. Kowall, D. Chargin, A. Sharon, S. Saman, G.F. Hall, W.C. Moss, R.O. Cleveland, R.E. Tanzi, P.K. Stanton, and A.C. McKee. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in blast-exposed military veterans and a blast neurotrauma mouse model. Science Translational Medicine, 2012. 4: 134ra60. PubMed PMID: 22593173; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3739428.


Gruentzig, A.W., C.M. Klapperich, A. Sharon, J. Braman, A. Chatterjee, and A.F. Sauer-Budge. A new DNA extraction method for automated food analysis. Analytical Methods, 2011. 3(7): 1507-1513.

Sauer-Budge, A.F. and A. Sharon. Editorial for the Special Issue of RCIM on Translational Research - Where Engineering Meets Medicine. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 2011. 27(2): 235-236.

Size, A., A. Sharon, and A.F. Sauer-Budge. An automated low cost instrument for simultaneous multi-sample tissue homogenization. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, 2011. 27(2): 276-281.


Sauer-Budge, A.F., P. Mirer, A. Chatterjee, N. Pollock, C. Klapperich, and A. Sharon. Integrated lab-on-a-chip Influenza diagnostic designed for low cost manufacturing.Techworld 2010, 2010. Anaheim, CA.

Chatterjee, A., P. Mirer, E. Zaldivar Santamaria, C. Klapperich, A. Sharon, and A.F. Sauer-Budge. RNA isolation from mammalian cells using porous polymer monoliths: An approach for high-throughput automation. Analytical Chemistry, 2010. 82: 4344-4356.


Sauer-Budge, A.F., P. Mirer, A. Chatterjee, C. Klapperich, D. Chargin, and A. Sharon. Low cost and manufacturable complete microTAS for detecting bacteria. Lab on a Chip, 2009. 9(19): 2803-2810. PubMed PMID: 19967117.