Research Papers

Fraunhofer USA CMI aims to be actively involved in the scientific dialog within the engineering and science community. Our engineers and scientists regularly publish fundamental and application-specific technical papers in consultation with our customers and research collaborators. The foundations for many new developments in the field of biomedical engineering and custom automation systems have been laid at Fraunhofer USA CMI and have been documented in relevant technical papers.

Zeifman, M., Lazrak, A., Roth, K. (2019).
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12053-019-09797-9
Abreu, J., Wingartz, N., Hardy, N. (2019).
The factors affecting the adoption of conventional solar PV have been broadly addressed in the recent literature....
Urban, B. (2018).
Validating the COOLNOMIX AC and refrigeration compressor control retrofit. Final Report. ESTCP Project EW-201513. Alexandria: Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP).
Fraunhofer USA Report to the U.S. DoD Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP).
Fuchs, H., Shehabi, A., Ganeshalingam, M., Desroches, L.B., Lim, B., Roth, K., et al. (2018).
Characteristics and Energy Use of Volume Servers in the U.S. In: 2018 ACEEE Summer Study Proceedings. Washington D.C.: ACEEE, 3-1 to 3-12.
As data centers proliferate t o meet the demand of Internet-of-T hings services, their energy intensity deserves clo se...
Abreu, J., Voge, J., Roth, K. (2018).
Outdoor temperature drives the peak demand of summer-peaking electric utilities and their grid infrastructure.
Abreu, J., McIlvennie, C., Wingartz, N., Mammoli, A. (2018).
What Would You Do To Keep The Lights On In Your Community? In: 2018 ACEEE Summer Study Proceedings. Washington D.C.: ACEEE, 11-1 to 11-15.
Previous studies have conclude d that residential demand respons e (DR) coupled with IT integration can improve the...
Zeifman, M., Lazrak, A., Roth, K. (2018).
Annual energy savings of up to $4- 5 billion could be achieved n ationwide through basic insulation and heating system...
Fontanini, A., Abreu, J. (2018).
A Data-Driven BIRCH Clustering Method for Extracting Typical Load Profiles for Big Data. In: IEEE Power & Energy General Meeting. Portland: IEEE PES.
In typical load shape analysis, many different clustering methods have been used to segment customers, interpret...
Ashouria, M., Haghighata, F., Fung, B., Lazrak, A., Yoshinod, H. (2018).
Development of Building Energy Saving Advisory: A Data Mining Approach. In: Energy and Buildings. 172: Elsevier, pp. 139-151.
Wang, Z., Rahnamay-Naeini, M., Abreu, J., Shuvro, R., Das, P., Mammoli, A., et al. (2018).
(Paper accepted) Human operators play a key role in the reliable operation of critical infrastructures. However, human...
Kalashnikov, M., Lee, J.C., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2018).
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens is driving the development of innovative, rapid...
Lazrak, A., Fourmigue, J., Robin, J. (2018).
Urban, B., Roth, K., Singh, M., Howes, D. (2017).
Energy Consumption of Consumer Electronics in U.S. Homes in 2017. Boston: Consumer Technology Association (CTA).
Fraunhofer CSE was contracted for a third time in seven years by the Consumer Technology Association (CTA) to conduct a...
Zeifman, M. (2017).
Identification and tracking of major electric appliances by using aggregate power data obtained at the main breaker...
Sauer-Budge, A.F., Brookfield, S.J., Janzen, R., McGray, S., Boardman, A., Wirz, H., et al. (2017).
Quantitative blood delivery directly from a fingerstick for hyperlocal healthcare
Kalashnikov, M., Mueller, M., McBeth, C., Lee, J.C., Campbell, J., Sharon, A., et al. (2017).
Bacteremia is a life-threatening condition for which antibiotics must be prescribed within hours of clinical diagnosis....
Kalashnikov, M., Mueller, M., McBeth, C., Lee, J.C., Campbell, J., Sharon, A., et al. (2017).
By applying environmental stress to bacteria in a microfluidic platform, we can correctly assign antibiotic...
Campbell, J., McBeth, C., Kalashnikov, M., Boardman, A., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2017).
Microfluidic advances in phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility testing. In: Biomedic Microdevices. 18(6): NCBI, p. 103.
A strong natural selection for microbial antibiotic resistance has resulted from the extensive use and misuse of...
Urban, B., Roth, R. (2017).
Urban, B., Roth, K. (2017).
Televisions in U.S. homes consumed about 50 billion kWh per year in 2013, or about 4% of the total U.S. residential...
Zeifman, M., Kromer, M., Roth, K. (2017).
Wang, N., Roth, K., Phelan, P., Gonzalez, J., Harris, C., Henze, G., et al. (2017).
Ten questions concerning future buildings beyond zero energy and carbon neutrality. In: Building and Environment. 119: Elsevier Ltd., 169-182.
Teng, F., Cormier, T., Sauer-Budge, A.F., Chaudhury, R., Pera, V., Istfan, R., et al. (2017).
We present a new continuous-wave wearable diffuse optical probe aimed at investigating the hemodynamic response of...
McBeth, C., Lauer, J., Ottersbach, M., Campbell, J., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2017).
Due to its relatively low level of antigenicity and high durability, titanium has successfully been used as the major...
Zeifman, M., Roth, K., Urban, B. (2017).
Communicating Thermostats as a Tool for Home Energy Performance Assessment. In: Proceedings of 35th IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics. Las Vegas: IEEE, pp. 191-192.
Roth, K., Kromer, M. (2016).
SunDial: An Integrated SHINES System Enabling High Penetration Feeder-Level PV. In: ACEEE Intelligent Energy Conference. Austin: ACEEE, pp. 1-33.
Abreu, J. (2016).
Abreu, J., Simoes, J. (2016).
On Demand: Evaluation of a Behavioral Automated Demand Response Field Experiment. In: 4th European Conference on Behavior and Energy Efficiency. Portugal: Proceedings of Behave 2016 Coimbra, pp. 1-4.
Abreu, J. , Roth, K. (2016).
This paper describes a field experiment to test two behavioral interventions designed to increase the effective use of...
Zeifman, M., Roth, K. (2016).
Residential Remote Audits: Estimation of Building Thermal Parameters Using Interval Energy Consumption Data. In: Proceedings of ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Pacific Grove: ACEEE, pp. 12.1-12.12.
Boardman, A., Wong, W.S., Premasiri, W.R., Ziegler, L.D., Lee, J.C., Miljkovic, M., et al. (2016).
Traditional methods for identifying pathogens in bacteremic patients are slow (24-48+ h). This can lead to physicians...
Kromer, M., Hoepfner, C., Ashmore, J. (2016).
Reducing the Cost of Residential-Scale PV Through 'Plug & Play PV' Systems and Standardized Electronic Workflows. In: 2016 IEEE 43rd Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC). Portland: IEEE, pp. 3481-3486.
Honeker, C., Fuller, E., Booth, D., Flaherty, B., Mao, E. (2016).
Reducing Installed Costs of Residential Solar by the Use of Adhesive Mounted Lightweight Solar Modules. In: Proceedings of the 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Portland: IEEE, pp. 3135-3140.
Premasiri, Ranjith, Lee, J.C., Sauer-Budge, A.F., Theberge, R., Costello, C.E., Ziegler, L.D. (2016).
The dominant molecular species contributing to the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra of bacteria...
Fern ndez-Carballo, B.L., McGuinness, I., McBeth, C., Kalashnikov, M., Borr¢s, S., Sharon, A., et al. (2016).
In this paper, we present a portable and low cost point-of-care (POC) PCR system for quantitative detection of...
Keenan, M., Howard, C., Tate, T., McGuiness, I., Sauer-Budge, A.F., Black, J., et al. (2016).
To improve the ease-of-use and safety of falloposcope deployment, we are working to create an everting balloon....
Teng, F., Cormier, T., Sauer-Budge, A.F., Roblyer, D.M. (2016).
We present a new continuous-wave (CW) wearable diffuse optical device aimed at investigating the hemodynamic response...
Urban, B., Roth, K., Harbor, C. (2016).
Lazrak, A., Boudehenn, F., Bonnot, S., Fraisse, G., Leconte, A., Papillon, P., et al. (2016).
Kromer, M., Hoepfner, C., Ashmore, J. (2016).
Kromer, M., Choudhary, S., Wittwer, C., Braam, F., Kohrs, R. (2016).
Rivera-Poventud, J., Carroll III, A., Faries, W., Yip, T., Anderson, M., Brannen, N. (2016).
Campbell, J., McGuinness, I., Wirz, H., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2015).
Multi-material and Multi-scale Three-dimensional Bioprinter. In: J. Nanotechnol. Eng. Med.. 6(2), 21005.
Our bioprinter has three components uniquely combined into a comprehensive tool: syringe pumps connected to a selector...
Urban, B., Shmakova, V., Lim, B., Roth, K. (2015).
Residential Consumer Electronics Energy Consumption in the United States. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting Lucerne: JRC-IET, pp. 648-656.
Campbell, J., Pollock, R., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2015).
We present a lab-on-a-chip and associated instrument for heterogeneous enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based...
Boardman, A.K., Campbell, J., Wirz, H., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2015).
Here, we report a novel, scaled-up sample preparation protocol carried out in a new microbial concentration device. The...
Zeifman, M., Akers, C. (2015).
Nonintrusive Monitoring of Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE). Las Vegas: IEEE, pp. 305-308.
Zeifman, M. (2015).
Measurement and Verification of Energy Saving in Smart Building Technologies. In: Proceedings of IEEE Global Conference on Signal and Information Processing (GlobalSIP). Orlando: IEEE, pp. 343-347.
Abreu, J., Hardy, N., Pereira, F., Zeifman, M. (2015).
Modeling Human Reliability in the Power Grid Environment: an Application of the SPAR-H Methodology. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting. , pp. 1-5.
Harbor, D., Roth, K., Zeifman, M., Shmakova, V. (2015).
Lazrak, A., Leconte, A., Cheze, A., Fraisse, G., Papillon, P., Souyri, B. (2015).
Kromer, M., Hoepfner, C., Ashmore, J. (2015).
Making Plug & Play PV Systems a Reality: A framework for driving down the cost of residential solar installations in the United States. In: White Paper sponsored by DOE. .
Zeifman, M. (2014).
Abreu, J., Lehman, K., Terpstra, N., Roth, K. (2014).
Plug&Play PV system is a cutting-edge technology that relies on lighter, adhesive solar modules, and a streamlined...
Zeifman, M. (2014).
Smart meter data analytics: Prediction of enrollment in residential energy efficiency programs. In: 2014 International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics (SMC). San Diego: IEEE, pp. 413-416.
Boardman, A.K., Allison, S., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2014).
We sought to minimize the adhesion of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) to the surface of...
Rosen, J.E., Size, A., Yang, Y., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2015).
we designed, fabricated, and tested the first prototype of a laparoscopic tool that provides the dexterity of a hand....
Urban, B., Shukla, N., Fontanini, A., Kosny, J. (2014).
An Outdoor Hut Testing Platform for Evaluating Advanced Building Enclosures. In: NSB Lund: NSB, pp. 135-143.
Briggs, J.C., A'amar, Bigio, I.J., Rosen, J., Lee, S.T., Sharon, A., et al. (2014).
The goal of the current research was to integrate the ESS fiber optic probes into a device that can also collect cells...
Abreu, J. , Roth, K., Feldman, J. (2014).
St. Polycarp Village is an affordable housing residency in Somerville, MA. The buildings are high efficiency, with LEED...
Zeifman, M. (2014).
Tutorial: Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring - Opportunities and Challenges. In: 32nd 2014 International Conference on Consumer Electronics. Las Vegas: IEEE.
Kalashnikov, M., Campbell, J., Lee, J.C., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2014).
We have developed a rapid microfluidic method for antibiotic susceptibility testing in a stress-based environment....
Lim, B., Roth, K., Nambiar, S., Rayakota, H. (2014).
Rapid Prototyping of Energy Management Applications with FRESH. In: Proceedings of the ACEEE 2014 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Washington: ACEEE, pp. 209-221.
Roth, K., Urban, B., Shmakova, V., Lim, B. (2014).
Residential Consumer Electronics Energy Consumption in 2013. In: Proceedings of the ACEEE 2014 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Washington: ACEEE, pp. 308-320.
Urban, B., Roth, K. (2014).
A Data-Driven Framework for Comparing Residential Thermostat Energy Performance. Boston: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems CSE.
Urban, B., Shmakova, V., Lim, B., Roth, K. (2014).
Abreu, J. , Roth, K., Feldman, J. (2013).
Residential energy consumption accounts for 22% of the United States' total energy demand (Ehrhardt-Martinez, et al.,...
Urban, B., Elliott, D., Shukla, N., Fallahi, A., Kosny, J., McDonough, M. (2013).
Thermal Mass Effect of Solid Block Aerated Autoclaved Concrete. In: 2nd Central European Symposium on Building Physics. Vienna: CESBP, pp. 1-37.
Byrnes, S., Fan, A., Trueb, J., Jareczek, F., Mazzochette, M., Sharon, A., et al. (2013).
Here, we present a portable system for centrifuge-free room temperature nucleic acid extraction from small volumes of...
Sauer-Budge, A.F., Boardman, A.K., Allison, S., Wirz, H., Foss, D., Sharon, A. (2013).
To enable the efficient capture of so few bacteria in a sea of billions of blood cells, the material properties of the...
Muehlhaus, J., Heim, S., Sachs, O., Schneider, F., Habel, U., Sass, K. (2013).
Engelmann, P., Roth, K., Tiefenbeck, V. (2013).
Tiefenbeck, V., Staake, T., Roth, K., Sachs, O. (2013).
Urban, B., Gomez, C. (2013).
A Case for Thermostat User Models. In: 13th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association. Chambery, pp. 1483-1490.
Zeifman, M., Roth, K., Stefan, J. (2013).
Automatic Recognition of Major End-Uses in Disaggregation of Home Energy Display Data. In: 2013 International Conference on Consumer Electronics. Las Vegas, pp. 104-105.
Wirz, H., Sauer-Budge, A.F., Briggs, J.C., Sharpe, A., Shu, S., Sharon, A. (2012).
Automated production of plant-based vaccines and pharmaceuticals. In: Journal of Laboratory Automation. 17(6), 449-57.
A fully automated factory was developed that uses tobacco plants to produce large quantities of vaccines and other...
Kalashnikov, M., Lee, J.C., Campbell, J., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2012).
In this paper, we present a novel microfluidic platform for antibiotic susceptibility testing based on...
Casey, L., Levi, M., Nichols, S., Kromer, M., Mossoba, M., Huang, J., et al. (2012).
Grid Integration of Electronic Devices & Systems at Medium Voltage. In: 2012 IEEE International Conference on Power System Technology - (POWERCON 2012). Auckland: IEEE, pp. 1-6.
Urban, B., Tiefenbeck, V., Roth, K. (2012).
Televisions, Computers, and Set-top Boxes: The Big Three of 2010 Home Consumer Electronics Energy Consumption. In: 2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Pacific Grove: ACEEE, pp. 9.301-9.316.
LaMarche, J., Cheney, K., Roth, K., Sachs, O. (2012).
Home Energy Management Products & Trends. In: ACEEE Summer Study. Asilomar: ACEEE, pp. 1-11.
Urban, B., Elliot, D., Sachs, O. (2012).
Towards Better Modeling of Residential Thermostats. In: SimBuild Conference IBPSA-USA. Madison: IBPSA, pp. 1-7.
Mossoba, J., Kromer, M., Faill, P., Katz, S., Borowy, P., Nichols, S., et al. (2012).
Analysis of Solar Irradiance Intermittency Mitigation Using Constant DC Voltage PV and EV Battery Storage. In: Transportation Electrification Conference and Expo (ITEC). Dearborn: IEEE, pp. 1-6.
Premasiri, W.R., Sauer-Budge, A.F., Lee, J.C., Klapperich, C.M., Ziegler, L.D. (2012).
Rapid bacterial diagnostics via surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. In: Spectroscopy Solutions for Materials Analysis. 2012(6), 40-49.
Efforts to develop a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based approach, which encompasses sample preparation,...
Campbell, J., Mirsky, P., Chatterjee, A., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2012).
A semi-automated liquid handler for parallel sample preparation. In: Biotech International. 2012(5), 23-5.
Goldstein, L.E., Fisher, A.M., Tagge, C.A., Zhang, X., Velisek, L., Sullivan, J.A., et al. (2012).
We developed a blast neurotrauma mouse model that recapitulated CTE-linked neuropathology in wild-type C57BL/6 mice 2...
Zeifman, M. (2012).
An Approximate Probabilistic Approach for Event-Based Disaggregation. In: 1st International Workshop on Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring. Pittsburgh.
Mirsky, P., Chatterjee, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F., Sharon, A. (2012).
An automated, parallel processing approach to biomolecular sample preparation. In: Journal of Laboratory Automation. 17(2), 116-124.
A novel, parallel processing device that performs the three separate liquid-handling functions necessary for such...
LaMarche, J., Cheney, K., Akers, C., Roth, K., Sachs, O. (2012).
Sachs, O., Tiefenbeck, V., Duvier, C., Quin, A., Cheney, C., Akers, C., et al. (2012).
Zeifman, M. (2012).
Disaggregation of Home Energy Display Data Using Probabilistic Approach. In: IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics. 58(1), Las Vegas: IEEE, pp. 23-31.
Abreu, J., Pereira, F.C., Ferrao, P. (2012).
Abreu, J., Pereira, F.C., J. (2012).
Discovering Electricity Usage Routines in Households to Enable Tailored Feedback. In: American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy Buildings Summer Study. Pacific Grove, pp. 7.1-7.9.
Sass, K., Habel, U., Sachs, O., Huber, W., Gauggel, S., Kircher, T. (2012).
The influence of emotional associations on the neural correlates of semantic priming. In: Human Brain Mapping. 33(3), pp. 676-694.
LaMarche, J. (2011).
The Influence of Display Medium and Design on Energy-Saving Technology Adoption. In: Behavior, Energy & Climate Change Conference 2011. Washington.
Tiefenbeck, V. (2011).
Side Effects of Household Water Consumption Feedback on Electricity Consumption. In: Behavior, Energy & Climate Change Conference 2011. Washington.
Sachs, O. (2011).
How to Make Psychology and Technology Work For You: Features of Feedback That Support Behavior Change. In: Consortium for Energy Efficiency Industry Partners Meeting. Washington.
Gruentzig, A.W., Klapperich, C.M., Sharon, A., Braman, J., Chatterjee, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2011).
A new DNA extraction method for automated food analysis. In: Analytical Methods. 3(7), 1507-1513.
Abreu, J., Azevedo, I., Pereira, F. (2011).
A contribution to better understand the demand for electricity in the residential sector. In: European Council for Energy Efficient Economies (ECEEE) Summer Study 2011. : ECEEE.
Zeifman, M., Roth, K. (2011).
Viterbi Algorithm with Sparse Transitions (VAST) for Nonintrusive Load Monitoring. In: IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence Applications in Smart Grid (CIASG). Paris: IEEE, pp. 1-8.
Sauer-Budge, A.F., Sharon, A. (2011).
Editorial for the Special Issue of RCIM on Translational Research - Where Engineering Meets Medicine. In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. 27(2), 235-236.
Zeifman, M., Roth, K. (2011).
Nonintrusive appliance load monitoring: Review and outlook. In: IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 57(1), Las Vegas: IEEE, pp. 76-84.
Urban, B., Roth, K., Tiefenbeck, V., Urban, B., Roth, K. (2011).
Energy Consumption of Consumer Electronics in US Homes in 2010. Boston: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems CSE, pp. 1-142.
Engelmann, P., Urban, B., Kosny, J. (2011).
New Developments in Mitigation of Thermal Bridges Generated by Light Gauge Steel Framing Components. In: NSB 2011, 9th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics. Tampere: NBS, pp. 1-8.
Urban, B., Engelmann, P., Urban, B., Engelmann, P., Kossecka, E., Kosny, J. (2011).
Arranging Insulation for Better Thermal Resistance in Concrete and Masonry Wall Systems. In: NSB 2011, 9th Nordic Symposium on Building Physics. Tampere: NBS, pp. 1-8.
LaMarche, J., Sachs, O. (2011).
Designing Interfaces for Home Energy Users: A Preference Study. In: HCI 2011. Communications in Computer and Information Science. 173Berlin: Springer.
Abreu, J., Azevedo, I., Pereira, F. (2011).
Smart Energy Systems. In: IEEE Pervasive Computing. 10(1): IEEE CS, 64.
Urban, B. (2010).
Engelmann, P. (2010).
Size, A., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2011).
An automated low cost instrument for simultaneous multi-sample tissue homogenization. In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. 27(2), 276-281.
Chatterjee, A., Mirer, P., Santamaria, E.Z., Klapperich, C.M., Sharon, A., Sauer-Budge, A.F. (2010).
RNA isolation from mammalian cells using porous polymer monoliths: An approach for high-throughput automation. In: Analytical Chemistry. 2010(82), 4344-4356.
Sauer-Budge, A.F., Mirer, P., Chatterjee, A., Pollock, N.R., Klapperich, C.M., Sharon, A. (2010).
Integrated Lab-on-a-Chip Influenza Diagnostic Designed for Low Cost Manufacturing. In: Technical Proceedings of the 2010 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Expo. 3: NSTI, 54-57.
In this paper we describe a completely integrated lab-on-a-chip for genetic analysis of bacteria or viruses. The chip...
Urban, B., Roth, K. (2010).
Guidelines for Selecting Cool Roofs. Boston: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems CSE, pp. 1-23.
Abreu, J., Pereira, F. , Vasconcelos, J., Ferr√£o, P. (2010).
An approach to discover the potential for demand response in the domestic sector. In: 2010 IEEE Conference on Innovative Technologies for an Efficient and Reliable Electricity Supply. 10(1), Waltham: IEEE, pp. 240 - 245.
Jaus, J., Pantsar, H., Adurodija, O.F., Li, B., Regaard, B., Herfurth, H., et al. (2010).
Formation of a conductive grid on thin film modules glass by laser-patterning. In: Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2010 35th IEEE. Honolulu, pp. 1-4.
Sauer-Budge, A.F., Mirer, P., Chatterjee, A., Klapperich, C.M., Chargin, D., Sharon, A. (2009).
Low cost and manufacturable complete microTAS for detecting bacteria. In: Lab on a Chip. 9(19): Royal Society of Chemistry, 2803-2810.
Walsh, B., Urban, B., Herkel, S. (2009).
Innovating for Better Buildings: An Opportunity Disguised as a Meltdown. White Paper by Nth Power & Fraunhofer. Boston: Nth Power, LLC; Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems CSE.
Kromer, M., Jackson, M., Bockholdt, W. (2009).
Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicles. In: TIAX, LLC. Prepared for the National Academy of Sciences, Contract DEPS-P290355. : TIAX, LLC..
Kromer, M., Heywood, J.B. (2007).
Electric Powertrains: Opportunities and Challenges in the US Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet. In: Laboratory for Energy and the Environment (LFEE): Reports to the President. Cambridge: MIT.

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